پاورپوینت بیوتکنولوژی زراعی

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پاورپوینت بیوتکنولوژی زراعی

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مشخصات فایل:پاورپوینت بیوتکنولوژی زراعیقالب بندی: پاورپوینت ( قابل ویرایش )تعداد اسلاید: 25بخشی از پاورپوینت:Crop BiotechnologyHow much worldwide?GE
crops accounted for slightly more than 22% of the worldwide acreage of
land under cultivation. (22% > twice the size of the UK).Six countries (out of approximately 190) account for 99% of the worldwide acreage of GE crops.U.S.: 63% (cotton, corn, soybeans, canola)Argentina: 21% (cotton, corn, soybeans)Canada: 6% (canola, corn, soybeans)Brazil: 4% (soybeans)China: 4% (cotton)South Africa: 1% (cotton, corn, soybeans)Three Main Applications    Roundup Ready SoybeansBt CornBt Cotton(Roundup Ready Wheat was nearing commercialization until Monsanto ceased development.)U. S. AcreageRoundup Ready SoybeansRoundup is a broad spectrum herbicide whose active ingredient is glyphosate.Roundup
is produced by Monsanto, although the patent on it recently expired.
Applying glyphosate to a non-resistant plant interrupts the ability of
an enzyme (EPSP synthase) to catalyze the production of amino acids,
causing the plant to suffer from amino acid starvation and cell death.
Glyphosate has minimal effect on human or animal health and degrades
quickly in the environment.Roundup Ready SoybeansRR soybeans
were made roundup ready by the introduction of a resistance gene from a
strain of Agrobacterium using particle bombardment. This gene produces a
slightly different form of the enzyme which is not interrupted by
glyphosate.Rationale: Simplifies weed control program. Roundup is a
highly effective herbicide and gives farmers more flexibility in timing
herbicide treatments.Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a
common soil bacterium which produces a crystalline toxin, primarily
effective against Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly species). When the
toxin is eaten by a susceptible insect, the insect’s digestive system
breaks down the proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then become
active and bind with molecules in the midgut of the insect, where they
cause pores to develop which upset the osmosis between the gut and the
rest of the insect. The insect stops feeding, and dies within a few
days. Organic farmers use spray formulations of Bt, which is the
only organic pesticide. Compared to most pesticides, which are
neurotoxins and extremely harmful to anything with a central nervous
system, Bt is comparatively specific and safe.Bt CornRationale:
The European Corn Borer is a major corn pest in the U. S., but synthetic
insecticides and spray Bt are not very effective against it due to the
fact that the Corn Borer lives underground and burrows into the corn
where the insecticides don’t reach. Annual losses to the ECB were
sometimes as high as 300 million bushels per year. Bt Corn produces Bt
toxin in every one of its cells continuously, and is quite effective in
reducing yield losses.Bt CottonBt toxin is also effective against tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, and pink bollworm, three major cotton pests.Cotton is the crop which receives the heaviest pesticide applications, and those posts are ones that farmers were spraying for.A Taxonomy of the Ethical IssuesConsumer IssuesEnvironmental IssuesSocioeconomic IssuesConsumer IssuesUnintended increase in antinutrients or decrease in nutrientsUnintended introduction of allergensDo not presently have a reliable test for whether or not a novel protein is an likely to be an allergen90%
of known food allergies are due to specific proteins in 8 foods:
peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soybeans, shell fish, fish, and wheatPioneer
Hi-Bred International developed a line of soybeans that higher
efficiency and nutritional content for animal feed by moving a gene from
the Brazil nut into the soybean. The soybean did produce an allergic
reaction in people who were allergic to Brazil nuts. Pioneer shut down
the project before it ever reached the market.Unintended introduction of toxinsConsumer Issues – The Pusztai AffairAugust
1998: Arpad Pusztai, a well-established researcher at the Rowett
Research Institute in Scotland, discussed preliminary data during a
television interviewSaid that the data suggested that rats fed 2
kinds of potatoes genetically engineered to produce snowdrop lectin (a
potential pesticide) exhibited stunted growth and suppressed immune
function compared to controls fed non-GM potatoes with or without added
snowdrop lectin.Consumer Issues – The Pusztai AffairHe says that
two days after the interview was aired, “When I got to my laboratory I
found the computer sealed, the desks locked and all my papers taken
away.” (Rampton and Stauber 2001)He was threatened with loss of pension if he made any public statements about the research.June
1999: The UK Royal Society concluded that “Because of the poor
experimental design, it is simply not possible to be sure about the
causes of the small effects obtained in the study.”Consumer Issues – The Pusztai AffairAugust
1999: Pusztai’s response in the Lancet: “… not all the facts were in
the possession of the Royal Society. Thus, it is difficult to understand
how they could deduce that the GM-potato experiments were “badly
designed and poorly carried out” from an internal report by Pusztai that
contained no such details. The Royal Society had never considered, or
even asked for, a copy of the original research proposal of 1995. This
omission was further compounded by the Royal Society’s unwillingness to
take up Pusztai’s offer of full cooperation. Moreover, as crucial
details of the histological findings were never divulged to them, it is
more than perplexing that the Royal Society’s unnamed experts were so
emphatic in their condemnation of the GM-potato experiments.”Consumer Issues – The Pusztai AffairOctober
1999: Pusztai’s article was published in The Lancet, subject to 6 peer
reviewers, twice the usual number. 4 recommended publication, 1 thought
it had problems but recommended publication anyway, and 1 recommended
rejection.Environmental IssuesEngineered crop may become a weed and disrupt neighboring ecosystemsGene may move from into a relative, increase its weediness, and disrupt neighboring ecosystemsCorn, soybeans, and cotton have no relatives in the U.S.Canola,
wheat, and sunflowers do have relatives in the U.S. (Allison Snow found
that wild sunflowers modified with the Bt gene produced fifty-five
percent more seeds than unmodified wild sunflowers. Pioneer and Dow
exercised their patent rights and prevented her from doing follow-up
research.Hard to predict how a gene transfer would affect fitness of relatives.Environmental ImpactIncreased Negative Impact of Herbicide UseRat LD50 value (indicator of acute mammalian toxicity)Environmental indicator is the sum of LD50 doses per acre for all herbicides appliedHerbicide Use with RR SoybeansSlight reduction in yield with RR soybeans (2%)Dramatic decrease in toxic doses of herbicideBt CornThe
National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy estimates that Bt corn
saved 66 million bushels of corn in 1999, the yield of about 500,000
acres.The use of Bt corn does not significantly reduce synthetic
pesticide use (because farmers weren’t spraying for the ECB); rather, it
supplements it.Environmental Issues – The Chapela AffairSeptember
2001: David Quist and Ignatio Chapela published in Nature that
transgenic DNA had moved into maize landraces in the mountains of
Oaxaca, Mexico.“This region is part of the Mesoamerican center of
origin for maize (Zea mays L.), and the genetic diversity that is
maintained in open-pollinated landraces recognized as an important
genetic resource of great cultural value. The presence of transgenes in
landraces was significant because transgenic maize has never been
approved for cultivation in Mexico.” (Snow et al. 2005)Environmental Issues – The Chapela AffairChapela
was an outspoken opponent of a five-year deal struck in 1998 that gave
biotech giant Novartis privileged access to UC plant research in
exchange for $25 million. Despite a positive vote from his
department, a unanimous ratification by an ad hoc tenure committee, and
recommendation by the chair and college Dean, the campus Budget
Committee denied tenure in June 2003.A Michigan State University
review concluded that there was “little doubt” that the Novartis deal
had played a role in the tenure decision.Chapela was later granted tenure when a new chancellor arrived at Berkeley.Environmental Issues – The Chapela AffairCommission
for Environmental Cooperation of North America (2004): “Transgenes have
entered some landraces of maize in Mexico. This finding was confirmed
by scientific studies sponsored by the Mexican government. However, no
peer-reviewed summaries of this work have been published and information
released to the public has been vague. In any event, there is no doubt
that transgenes will spread in Mexican maize, and that they are present
now.” Snow et al. (2005) conclude: “No transgenic sequences were
detected with highly sensitive PCR-based markers, appropriate positive
and negative controls, and duplicate samples for DNA extraction. We
conclude that transgenic maize seeds were absent or extremely rare in
the sampled fields.”Bt CottonThe National Center for Food and
Agricultural Policy estimates that Bt cotton has reduced synthetic
insecticide use by 2.7 million pounds, and resulted in 15 million fewer
pesticide applications. Pesticide-related hospital visits for farm
workers on farms that grow Bt cotton are substantially reduced in
number.Environmental IssuesEffects on non-target organismsDirect:
John Losey at Cornell reported that pollen from Bt corn kills monarch
butterfly larvae. The main food source for the larvae is milkweed plants
on the edge of corn fields. Indirect: in some areas, more
effective elimination of weeds in Roundup Ready fields has reduced
ecological biodiversity in the surrounding areaSocioeconomic IssuesIncreases in yield can makes prices drop, not always a good thing.Pests
will become resistant to Bt, thus undermining its usefulness.
(According to Scott (2005), industry pressed for as small a refuge as
possible, while scientists argued that 10% was necessary to avoid
resistance; resulting in a 4% refuge.) GE crops contaminate organic farmers fields.Contamination can also jeopardize markets.StarLink (2000): In 2000, the USDA agreed to spend $20 million to buy up contaminated cornProdigene and pharmaceutical production (2002)Roundup
Ready Wheat was going to be commercialized in 2005. An Iowa State
agricultural economist predicted that “American spring wheat producers
could lose 30 to 50 percent of their export market” and that the price
of U.S. wheat could drop by as much as 33%.” Monsanto finally gave up
developing RR Wheat.- این پاورپوینت کاملا استاندارد بوده و در تهیه آن کلیه اصول نگارشی رعایت شده است. 

 

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